Top PGDM Colleges in Bangalore


PGDM (Post Graduate Diploma in Management)

The Post Graduate diploma in Management (PGDM) course focuses on the application of the theories of business and management in multiple domains like accounts, finance, human resources (HR), marketing, operations, education, events, fashion, hospitality, industrialization, information technology (IT), logistics, marketing and tourism. It is experience-based and covers topics like strategy design, resource management, process execution, compliance, business forecast, market monitoring and analysis, and market regulation. The candidates from the top PGDM colleges in Bangalore will have diverse knowledge about the multiple applications of business concepts and management strategies to begin their own firm and business. Skills like project management, logical reasoning, decision-making and entrepreneurship are enhanced through this course

The PGDM from best PGDM colleges in Bangalore graduates have multiple opportunities to grow in their profession and enhance their technical and industrial knowledge. There are plenty of career opportunities in government and private sectors. The transition from an employee to an employer is also a very significant advantage of the PGDM degree. Fresh graduates can apply to multiple job roles – both national and international, and accelerate and build their careers where they can learn different working methodologies and strategies, experiment with different job roles, enhance their practical certifications and skills, and earn a very high salary package.

What Skills does a PGDM student develop?

The PGDM course when done in top ranking PGDM colleges in Bangalore develops the following skills in the students, they are

  • Diverse and Broad business understanding skills
  • Outstanding Communication skills
  • Abilities and Strategies with excellent Problem-solving skills
  • Excellent Networking skills
  • Personality Development
  • Research and analytical skills
  • Leadership Qualities and Entrepreneurial Skills

List of Top PGDM Colleges in Bangalore

     

  • St.Joseph's Institute of Management (SJIM)
    St.Joseph's Institute of Management (SJIM)

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE),Autonomus

    Eligibility: The candidate should be a graduate in any discipline from a recognized university under regular mode ONLY. The candidate should have a consistent academic record of the first class (minimum 60% marks) in STD X, STD XII & Graduation. The candidates who have cleared all the subjects in their first attempt will be preferred. Candidates with a history of more than two arrears need not apply. Candidates who have appeared for the Final Graduate Level examination and are awaiting results may also apply. Along with any one Entrance Test mention below: CAT XAT MAT (September, December, February, May) : A minimum of 550 score. We also accept GMAT, ATMA and CMAT scores

    Duration: 2 Years, Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance + Marketing
    • Human Resources Management + Finance
    • Marketing + Human Resources Management
    • Finance + Operations
    • Marketing + Operations

    Campus Location: No. 28, 1, Primrose Rd, Craig Park Layout, Ashok Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560025

    Distance:

    The Institution is located in the heart of Bangalore, Brigade Road, College can easily connected to the railway, bus station and the airport 
    Distance from Airport- 37 km 
    Distance from Railway station- 6 km 


  • Kristu Jayanti College
    Kristu Jayanti College

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    Krisyu Jayanthi College (Autonomous)

    Eligibility: Candidates who have obtained a Bachelor's degree (10+2+3), Master's Degree from a recognized university in disciplines of Commerce, Management, Arts, Science, Engineering/Technology, or equivalent and have secured not less than 50% of Marks in aggregate (including languages) in the Bachelor's Degree Examination are eligible for admission to this programme.

    Duration: 1 year, Full time, Postgraduate Programme


    Campus Location: K. Narayanapura, Kothanur (PO, K Narayanapura Main Rd, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560077.

    Distance:

    • Distance from Bangalore Airport to College: 26.6 km
    • Distance from City Railway station to College: 18.8 km
    • Distance from City Bus stand to College: 19.5 km


  • Jain College
    Jain College

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

    Eligibility: Bachelor’s degree with a minimum of 50% marks (45% for SC/ST) in aggregate from a UGC recognized university or equivalent A high score in any of the nationally recognized entrance test – MAT/ CAT/ XAT/ ATMA/ CMAT/ KMA

    Duration: 2 years, Full Time, Post graduate Programme


    Campus Location: # 44 / 4, District Fund Road, Jayanagar 9th Block Bangalore – 560 069 Karnataka, India

    Distance:

    The college is well connected to Air, Bus and Railways 

    VV Puram Campus-

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 37.6 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 5 km

    Jaya Nagar Campus

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 42 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 9.4 km

    R R Nagar Campus

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 43 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 9.5 km


  • MS Ramaiah Institute of Management
    MS Ramaiah Institute of Management

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

    Eligibility: Candidates must have a bachelor's degree in any discipline with a minimum of 50 per cent marks.

    Duration: 2 years, Full time, Post Graduate Degree Program

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Banking & Insurance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Operations Management
    • Systems & Information Technology Management

    Campus Location: MSR Nagar, MSRIT Post, New BEL Road, Bangalore

    Distance:

    M.S. Ramaiah Medical College is located just 7 km from Bangalore city. Bangalore is famous for the Information Technology Industry, also known as the "Silicon Valley". The area of the college enjoys a salubrious climate and is placed at an altitude of 3000 feet above the sea level. The city is well connected by Air, Railway and Roadways.

    The location makes it feasible for students from across the country as well as globe to seek admission to the esteemed institution.


  • IFIM B School
    IFIM B School

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    • All India Council for Technical Education
    • South Asian Quality Assurance System (SAQS) 
    • Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)

    Eligibility: • Candidates are required to have a bachelor's degree from a recognized university with a minimum aggregate of 50% for all subjects taken together (45% for SC/ST candidates). • Must have qualified in one of the national level management entrance examinations, viz., CAT, XAT or GMAT. • CFA candidates who cleared their level 1 will be given preference during admission process into PGDM (Finance specialisation)

    Duration: 2 Years,Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • International Business

    Campus Location: 8 P & 9 P, KIADB Industrial Area, Electronic City Phase I, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560100

    Distance:

    Distance from Bangalore Airport to College: 53 km
    Distance from City Railway station to College: 21.8 km
    Distance from City Bus stand to College: 22.65 km


  • ISBR College
    ISBR College

    Course 1: PGDM (Regular)

    Course 2: PGDM Sports Management

    Affiliations:

    AICTE

    Eligibility: Any graduate with a minimum of 50% in the qualifying examination.MAT / CAT / CMAT / XAT / PGCET / ATMA / ICET & any other state entrance test.

    Duration: 2 years, Full Time, Post graduate Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Marketing & Supply Chain Management
    • Business Analytics
    • Information Technology - IT
    • Tourism & Travel
    • Health Care
    • Small Business Management & Entrepreneurship
    • Retailing
    • Banking
    • Insurance
    • Sports Management

    Campus Location: ISBR College #107, Near Infosys & adjacent to BSNL, Telephone Exchange, Electronic City, Phase I, Bangalore - 560100.

    Distance:

    • The college is located in Electronic city which is 18.7 km from bangalore city.
    • The college is well connected to  Air, Railways and Bus.
    • Distance from Airport is 39.8 km,from Railway it is 18.2 km.


  • ISME Bangalore
    ISME Bangalore

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    • AICTE

    Eligibility: All students with a bachelor degree in any discipline from a recognized university with a minimum of 50 percent marks in aggregate or candidates appearing for their final year examination may also apply. The applicant would have appeared in MAT / CAT examination or will have to appear in May MAT examination

    Duration: 2 Years,Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • Business Analytics

    Campus Location: Sy. No. 88,Chembanahalli,Near Dommasandra Circle, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore 562125 Karnataka, India

    Distance:


  • NITTE School Of Management
    NITTE School Of Management

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

    Eligibility: All students with a bachelor degree in any discipline from a recognized university with a minimum of 50 percent marks in aggregate or candidates appearing for their final year examination may also apply. The applicant would have appeared in MAT / CAT examination or will have to appear in May MAT examination.

    Duration: 2 Years,Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Operations Management
    • Business Analytics
    • Health Care
    • Supply Chain Management
    • Banking
    • Sports Management
    • Agri-Business Management
    • Management Consulting

    Campus Location: govindapura, Gollahalli, Yelahanka, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560064

    Distance:


    AICTE colleges

  • St.Joseph's Institute of Management (SJIM)
    St.Joseph's Institute of Management (SJIM)

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE),Autonomus

    Eligibility: The candidate should be a graduate in any discipline from a recognized university under regular mode ONLY. The candidate should have a consistent academic record of the first class (minimum 60% marks) in STD X, STD XII & Graduation. The candidates who have cleared all the subjects in their first attempt will be preferred. Candidates with a history of more than two arrears need not apply. Candidates who have appeared for the Final Graduate Level examination and are awaiting results may also apply. Along with any one Entrance Test mention below: CAT XAT MAT (September, December, February, May) : A minimum of 550 score. We also accept GMAT, ATMA and CMAT scores

    Duration: 2 Years, Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance + Marketing
    • Human Resources Management + Finance
    • Marketing + Human Resources Management
    • Finance + Operations
    • Marketing + Operations

    Campus Location: No. 28, 1, Primrose Rd, Craig Park Layout, Ashok Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560025

    Distance:

    The Institution is located in the heart of Bangalore, Brigade Road, College can easily connected to the railway, bus station and the airport 
    Distance from Airport- 37 km 
    Distance from Railway station- 6 km 


  • MS Ramaiah Institute of Management
    MS Ramaiah Institute of Management

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

    Eligibility: Candidates must have a bachelor's degree in any discipline with a minimum of 50 per cent marks.

    Duration: 2 years, Full time, Post Graduate Degree Program

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Banking & Insurance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Operations Management
    • Systems & Information Technology Management

    Campus Location: MSR Nagar, MSRIT Post, New BEL Road, Bangalore

    Distance:

    M.S. Ramaiah Medical College is located just 7 km from Bangalore city. Bangalore is famous for the Information Technology Industry, also known as the "Silicon Valley". The area of the college enjoys a salubrious climate and is placed at an altitude of 3000 feet above the sea level. The city is well connected by Air, Railway and Roadways.

    The location makes it feasible for students from across the country as well as globe to seek admission to the esteemed institution.


  • Jain College
    Jain College

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

    Eligibility: Bachelor’s degree with a minimum of 50% marks (45% for SC/ST) in aggregate from a UGC recognized university or equivalent A high score in any of the nationally recognized entrance test – MAT/ CAT/ XAT/ ATMA/ CMAT/ KMA

    Duration: 2 years, Full Time, Post graduate Programme


    Campus Location: # 44 / 4, District Fund Road, Jayanagar 9th Block Bangalore – 560 069 Karnataka, India

    Distance:

    The college is well connected to Air, Bus and Railways 

    VV Puram Campus-

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 37.6 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 5 km

    Jaya Nagar Campus

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 42 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 9.4 km

    R R Nagar Campus

    • The distance from Kempegowda international Airport is 43 km
    • The distance from Bangalore Central Railway Station(SBC/Majestic) is 9.5 km


  • IFIM B School
    IFIM B School

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    • All India Council for Technical Education
    • South Asian Quality Assurance System (SAQS) 
    • Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)

    Eligibility: • Candidates are required to have a bachelor's degree from a recognized university with a minimum aggregate of 50% for all subjects taken together (45% for SC/ST candidates). • Must have qualified in one of the national level management entrance examinations, viz., CAT, XAT or GMAT. • CFA candidates who cleared their level 1 will be given preference during admission process into PGDM (Finance specialisation)

    Duration: 2 Years,Full Time, Post Graduation Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • International Business

    Campus Location: 8 P & 9 P, KIADB Industrial Area, Electronic City Phase I, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560100

    Distance:

    Distance from Bangalore Airport to College: 53 km
    Distance from City Railway station to College: 21.8 km
    Distance from City Bus stand to College: 22.65 km


  • ISBR College
    ISBR College

    Course 1: PGDM (Regular)

    Course 2: PGDM Sports Management

    Affiliations:

    AICTE

    Eligibility: Any graduate with a minimum of 50% in the qualifying examination.MAT / CAT / CMAT / XAT / PGCET / ATMA / ICET & any other state entrance test.

    Duration: 2 years, Full Time, Post graduate Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Marketing & Supply Chain Management
    • Business Analytics
    • Information Technology - IT
    • Tourism & Travel
    • Health Care
    • Small Business Management & Entrepreneurship
    • Retailing
    • Banking
    • Insurance
    • Sports Management

    Campus Location: ISBR College #107, Near Infosys & adjacent to BSNL, Telephone Exchange, Electronic City, Phase I, Bangalore - 560100.

    Distance:

    • The college is located in Electronic city which is 18.7 km from bangalore city.
    • The college is well connected to  Air, Railways and Bus.
    • Distance from Airport is 39.8 km,from Railway it is 18.2 km.


    Autonomous colleges

  • Kristu Jayanti College
    Kristu Jayanti College

    Course name: PGDM

    Affiliations:

    Krisyu Jayanthi College (Autonomous)

    Eligibility: Candidates who have obtained a Bachelor's degree (10+2+3), Master's Degree from a recognized university in disciplines of Commerce, Management, Arts, Science, Engineering/Technology, or equivalent and have secured not less than 50% of Marks in aggregate (including languages) in the Bachelor's Degree Examination are eligible for admission to this programme.

    Duration: 1 year, Full time, Postgraduate Programme


    Campus Location: K. Narayanapura, Kothanur (PO, K Narayanapura Main Rd, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560077.

    Distance:

    • Distance from Bangalore Airport to College: 26.6 km
    • Distance from City Railway station to College: 18.8 km
    • Distance from City Bus stand to College: 19.5 km


    Global Programs colleges

  • ISBR College
    ISBR College

    Course 1: PGDM with International Study Trip

    Course 2: PGDM One Semester Abroad

    Course 3: Global PGDM - 3 Country Exposure Program

    Affiliations:

    • AICTE

    Eligibility: Candidates with 50% percent marks in aggregate in Bachelor’s / Master’s Degree of a recognized University are eligible for admission. 3 Country Programme

    Duration: 2 years, Full Time, Post graduate Programme

    Specializations:

    • Finance
    • Banking & Insurance
    • Marketing
    • Human resources
    • International Business
    • Information Technology - IT
    • Tourism & Travel
    • Health Care
    • Small Business Management & Entrepreneurship
    • Retailing
    • Supply Chain Management

    Campus Location: ISBR College #107, Near Infosys & adjacent to BSNL, Telephone Exchange, Electronic City, Phase I, Bangalore - 560100.

    Distance:

    • The college is located in Electronic city which is 18.7 km from bangalore city.
    • The college is well connected to  Air, Railways and Bus.
    • Distance from Airport is 39.8 km,from Railway it is 18.2 km.


REQUEST FOR CALL BACK

class Major Courses

Course 1: PGDM

Course 2: PGCM

Course 3: PGDBA

Course 4: E PGDM

Course 5: PGDM (HRM)

Course 6: Global PGDM

Course 7: PGDM (One Year)

Course 8: PGDM in Data Science

Course 9: PGDM One Semester Abroad

Course 10: PGDM in Sports Management

Course 11: PGDM for Working Professionals

Course 12: PGDM with International Study Trip

PGDM course details

Duration

2 years 

Level

Master Programme

Entrance Exam

CAT/ MAT/ XAT/ GMAT/ CMAT/ SNAP/ NMAT/ PGCET/ KMAT/ ATMA

Mode of Admission

Merit /Management

Eligibility

  • The students who have completed their degree in any stream with 50% (GM) and 45% (OBC/SC/ST) aggregate are eligible to apply PGDM courses in Bangalore at top PGDM colleges in Bangalore
  • The students should apply for CAT/MAT/CMAT/KMAT/ATMA/GMAT or any entrance exam for getting admission to PGDM courses in Bangalore

Fee Detail

Merit Quota Seats: Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 90,000 per annum.

Management Quota Seats: Rs. 90,000 to 4,00,000 per annum.

Admission Process

Merit- The Interested candidates have to qualify any of the management entrance exams like CAT/MAT/CMAT/ATMA/KMAT or any other to apply for merit seats.

Management- The candidates looking for Management seats can contact Galaxy Education for more details about management quota

Specialisations

The popular list of specializations for PGDM in Bangalore are:

Marketing Information Technology Small Business Management & Entrepreneurship
Finance Health Care Sports Management
Human resources Retail Management Business Analytics
International Business Banking Insurance
Marketing & Supply Chain Management Logistics & Supply Chain Management Operations Management
Systems & Information Technology Management Tourism & Travel Healthcare Analytics

Syllabus of PGDM

Year Semester Subject
Year I Semester I
  • Organizational Behaviour
  • Accounting for Management
  • Marketing Management
  • Managerial Economics
  • Quantitative Techniques
  • Business Law
  • Business Communication
  • Business Oriented Computer Applications
  • Organizational Study
Semester II
  • Business Research Methods
  • Financial Management
  • Consumer Behaviour
  • Strategic Management
  • International Business
  • Operations Management
  • Business Analytics
  • Human Resource Management
  • Summer Internship Project
Year II Semester III
  • Elective Courses as per Institutional Guidelines
Semester IV
  • Elective Courses as per Institutional Guidelines

Electives Subjects
Marketing Management 
  • Sales and Distribution Management
  • Advertising and Brand Management
  • International Marketing Management
  • Marketing of Services
  • Consumer Behaviour
Financial Management
  • Management Control Systems
  • Security Analysis & Portfolio Management
  • International Finance
  • Corporate Finance
  • Management of Financial Services
International Business
  • Import Export Documentation
  • Indian Foreign Trade
  • International Human Resource Management
  • International Marketing Management
  • International Finance
Human Resource Management
  • Performance Management
  • Training and Development
  • Managerial Leadership
  • International Human Resource Management
  • Managing Change through Organisational Development
Operations Management
  • Technology Management
  • Project Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Operations Strategy
  • Quality Management
Information Systems
  • Computer Networks
  • Fundamentals of E-Commerce
  • Software Engineering
  • Database Management
  • Management of Information Technology

Comparison of MBA and PGDM

MBA

PGDM

The MBA program follows the course syllabus provided by the affiliated university

The Autonomous colleges like IIM’S and XLRI that offer PGDM/PGP programme have their own syllabus

The MBA programme is recognized and granted by the Governing body: University Grants Commission (UGC)

The PGDM programme is accredited by the Governing body: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), that provides recognition and approvals to the diploma programmes

MBA programmes train the students to land in conventional jobs like managerial positions

The PGDM programmes train the students to handle the high-profile managerial positions in the corporate business environment

The fee structure for MBA programme is less

The PGDM programme fee structure is a little expensive

The MBA syllabus is conventional and not updated at regular intervals

PGDM syllabus is regularly updated according to the changing trends of the industry requirements.

The MBA programme syllabus is limited to theoretical and is academic-oriented

The PGDM programmes are practical and industry-oriented

The course duration of the MBA is 2 - years

The duration of the PGDM programme is 2 - years, while some autonomous colleges also provide 1 - year PGDM programme.

MBA courses are best suited for pursuing doctoral programmes with more emphasis on academics

PGDM courses are industry-oriented and the emphasis is more on career growth

Placement of PGDM

Career opportunities are available in public and private companies. Potential career roles:

  • Business Analyst
  • Quantitative Analyst
  • Credit and Risk Manager
  • Textile Manager
  • Marketing and Sales Manager
  • Logistics and Supply
  • Hospital Administrator
  • Pharmaceutical Project Manager
  • Hospital Business Manager
  • Food & Beverage Manager
  • Labor Relations Specialist
  • Marketing Manager
  • Small Business Owner
  • Business Consultant
  • Corporate Manager
  • Trials Executive
  • Administrative Service Manager
  • Rural Development Officer
  • Purchase/Vendor Development Manager
  • Planning Manager
  • Project Manager

select_all Benefits of PGDM

  • An PGDM will help the students to be updated with the trending business skills in the world  
  • The PGDM course will allow the students to have a better industry interface
  • The students with PGDM will have better placement opportunities
  • The students with PGDM can expect jobs with Higher Salary Packages
  • The students with PGDM can experience practical knowledge about the marketing world
  • The PGDM students will develop strong soft skills
  • The PGDM course prepares the students for high end corporate jobs.
  • The PGDM will open ample job opportunities at both National & International levels for the students 
  • Many reputed B-Schools offer the PGDM students with placement opportunities along with the stipend option.

sort Skills Developed through PGDM

  • The PGDM degree will give a broad business understanding for the students
  • The PGDM degree trains the students with most important skill set like strategic Problem solving
  • The PGDM degree improves the networking skills among the students
  • The PGDM degree trains the students to cope up well under pressure
  • The PGDM degree develops the research and analytical skills in the students
  • The PGDM degree develops the leadership qualities in the students
  • The PGDM degree develops management skills and entrepreneurial skills in the students
  • The PGDM degree develops the business skills where the students will learn to start their own business and become successful entrepreneurs

Top Recruiters for PGDM students

The PGDM students have ample job opportunities across the globe. The PGDM candidates are easily hired in top and managerial positions across companies irrespective of their sectors. They are eventually hired in extremely well-paying jobs. The average salary of a PGDM graduate will range from 15 Lakhs to 50 Lakhs PA.

Some of the Popular Recruiters for MBA students are:

  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • IBM
  • Capgemini
  • HP
  • Amazon
  • HCL
  • JP Morgan Chase
  • Fidelity Solutions
  • Accenture
  • Goldman Sachs
  • Oracle and many more

Benefits of our Counselling

  • The students will get exclusive and detailed information about all the colleges in Bangalore and they will be given complete assistance for getting admissions to the top MBA colleges in Bangalore
  • The students can take direct admissions in PGDM colleges in Bangalore in the top 10 PGDM colleges in Bangalore
  • The students will be provided with facilities such as travel guide, and exclusive campus tours to the top 5 PGDM colleges in Bangalore from Galaxy Education
  • The students will get genuine information, reviews and research-based ratings about different colleges from alumni students and existing students
  • The students will be given an in-depth comparison of different colleges and institutions based on their budgets
  • The students of Galaxy Education will enjoy exclusive placement support services from top MNCs of the country

speaker_notes Discussion Forum

Start your discussion

Type your message

Recent discussions
Niteesha Das 3 weeks ago

Want to know more about merit quota...

Reply

Shruthi 3 weeks ago

Hi Niteesha for guidance please contact us to +91 9916505050/8088602346 or begin a chat

Reply

At Galaxy Education, we help you through the process of finding and applying to the right PGDM Colleges in Bangalore. Contact us in below details to get more information on admission procedure and how to secure your seat in these colleges:

Please wait, we are submitting your enquiry...

Enquire Now
Enquire Now